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Vaccines and Therapeutics

Adjuvants: Introduction

Traditional vaccines derived from live-attenuated- or inactivated whole organisms or toxins were effective in inducing predominantly antibody-based immunity, but highly reactogenic. Developments to produce safer, less reactogenic vaccines also capable of inducing cell-mediated immunity have resulted in compromised vaccine efficacy. Adjuvants (taken from the Latin, “adjuvare,” meaning “to help”) are designed to improve poorly immunogenic vaccines.

Adjuvants Immunostimulatory

Immune-potentiating adjuvants are thought to activate the innate immune system via toll-like receptors (TLRs) or pattern recognition receptors (PRR). Cooperation between these two components is desirable in directing the balance of humoral and cell-mediated immunity associated with the acquired immune response.

HIV-1 Vaccines

More than thirty years of laboratory and clinical research has proven developing a vaccine against HIV is one of the most challenging tasks that the field of medicine has been encountered. In early years, no one realized that HIV is more complex than any other viral diseases for which effective vaccines have been developed.

Mucosal Vaccination

Mucosal tissues (e.g. nasal, oral, ocular, rectal, vaginal) cover a large surface of the body. Since many infections are initiated at mucosal sites, it is critical to develop strategies for neutralising the infectious agent at these surfaces. Mucosal vaccination involves the administration of vaccines at one or more mucosal sites leading to induction of immune responses at the mucosal site of administration, other mucosal sites, and/or systemically. Figure 1 highlights the relative advantages and limitations of mucosal vaccination.