This free seminar is run by the VALIDATE Network, which aims to promote vaccine research and development (R&D) for complex intracellular pathogens that cause significant disease burden in low and middle-income countries. The speakers are Drs Andrea Zelmer & Helen Fletcher from LSHTM. Immune correlates of risk of TB disease have recently been identified in human clinical trials. These correlates indicate that, years before TB disease develops, there is alteration in the host-immune environment which is associated with risk of TB disease. Perhaps these alterations render the immune environment permissive to mycobacterial infection or increased growth, or perhaps they reduce the efficacy of the BCG vaccine? Back translation of immune correlates of risk into animal models will enable us to address these questions and model the immune response of those individuals at greatest risk of TB disease.