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Joint Virtual Issue - Inflammasomes and Inflammatory Disease

To celebrate BSI Congress 2017, this virtual issue combines articles from both the BSI’s journals, Immunology and Clinical & Experimental Immunology, with a focus on Inflammasomes and Inflammatory Disease, a topic inspired by the keynote session to be presented by one of the most eminent scientists working in the field of innate immunity, Luke O'Neill FRS.

Much of the activity of the immune system is influenced by the signalling pathways that stem from pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). This diverse collection of protein receptors recognises specific danger or pathogen associated molecular patterns (DAMPS/ PAMPS) and consequently initiates signalling cascades that regulate both the innate and the adaptive arms of the immune system. Feedback loops and molecular associations between different families of PRR enable appropriate immune responses to be matched to the vast diversity of pathogens, and host-derived threats or indeed, commensals. An example of such assemblies are the inflammasomes, molecular machines whose activation induces an inflammatory response, primarily through the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-18 (IL-18).

As cellular alarm systems, PRRs are invaluable in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. However, due to the extreme outcomes of their activation, strict regulation is required and dysregulated control can lead to serious damage.

This collection of articles features some of the key reviews and primary research papers examining PRRs, and inflammasomes, and how their downstream products may play a role in inflammatory disease. With improved understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms, possible new therapies to treat dysregulated immune responses come ever closer.

All the articles in this collection have been published in issues of the journals from 2015 to 2017, and are FREE to view and download.

Clinical & Experimental Immunology

Inflammasome gene profile is modulated in septic patients, with a greater magnitude in non-survivors
K.F. Esquerdo, N.K. Sharma, M.K.C. Brunialti et al

Monocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and type 2 diabetes mellitus display an increased production of interleukin (IL)-1ß via the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing family pyrin 3(NLRP3)-inflammasome activation: a possible implication for therapeutic decision in these patients
P. Ruscitti, P. Cipriani, P. Di Benedetto et al.

Serum amyloid A induces interleukin-1ß secretion from keratinocytes via the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 inflammasome
N. Yu, S. Liu, X. Yi et al.

Immunology

Negative regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation by Tim-3 protects against peritonitis
Wei Wang, Qingzhu Shi, Shuaijie Dou et al.

Caspase-11 non-canonical inflammasome: a critical sensor of intracellular lipopolysaccharide in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses
Young-Su Yi

NLRP3 inflammasome mediates interleukin-1ß production in immune cells in response to Acinetobacter baumannii and contributes to pulmonary inflammation in mice
Min-Jung Kang, Sung-Gang Jo, Dong-Jae Kim et al.

Understanding the regulation of pattern recognition receptors in inflammatory diseases – a ‘Nod’ in the right direction
Claire L. Feerick & Declan P. McKernan

NOD1 in the modulation of host-microbe interactions and inflammatory bone resorption in the periodontal disease model
João Antônio Chaves de Souza, Sabrina Cruz Tfaile Frasnelli, Fabiana de Almeida Curylofo-Zott et al.

High-density lipoprotein reduces inflammation from cholesterol crystals by inhibiting inflammasome activation
Seth G. Thacker, Abdalrahman Zarzour, Ye Chen et al.

The regulation of host defences to infection by the microbiota
Rebecca L. Brown & Thomas B. Clarke

Complementing the inflammasome
Martha Triantafilou, Timothy R. Hughes, Bryan Paul Morgan et al.

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