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World Diabetes Day - highlights from our journals

Here we present a collection of key articles from our official journals that investigate type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Clinical & Experimental Immunology

CD4 T cell differentiation in type 1 diabetes
Walker, L. S. K. and von Herrath, M. (2016).
Clin Exp Immunol, 183: 16–29. doi:10.1111/cei.12672
Early models of T cell differentiation focused on the dichotomy between T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 responses, with T1D being viewed mainly as a Th1-mediated pathology. However, several additional fate choices have emerged in recent years, including Th17 cells and follicular helper T cells.
The case for an autoimmune aetiology of type 1 diabetes
Mannering, S. I., Pathiraja, V. and Kay, T. W. H. (2016).
Clin Exp Immunol, 183: 8–15. doi:10.1111/cei.12699
Several recent papers have challenged the long-standing paradigm describing T1D as a tissue-specific autoimmune disease. These authors have highlighted the gaps in our knowledge and understanding of the aetiology of T1D in humans. Here we review the evidence and argue the case for the autoimmune basis of human T1D.
The intestinal microbiome in type 1 diabetes
Dunne, J. L., Triplett, E. W., Gevers, D., Xavier, R., Insel, R., Danska, J. and Atkinson, M. A. (2014).
Clin Exp Immunol, 177: 30–37. doi:10.1111/cei.12321
A growing number of recent studies of patients with T1D or at varying levels of risk for this disease, as well as in animal models of the disorder, lend increasing support to the notion that alterations in the microbiome precede T1D onset.

Immunology

Immunological mechanisms contributing to the double burden of diabetes and intracellular bacterial infections
Hodgson, K., Morris, J., Bridson, T., Govan, B., Rush, C. and Ketheesan, N. (2015).
Immunology, 144: 171–185. doi:10.1111/imm.12394
The establishment of acute intracellular bacterial infections in the diabetic host is associated with impaired T-cell-mediated immune responses.
Influence of diabetes mellitus on immunity to human tuberculosis
Kumar Nathella, P. and Babu, S. (2017).
Immunology, 152: 13–24. doi:10.1111/imm.12762
Diabetes is associated with immune dysfunction and alterations in the components of the immune system, including altered levels of specific cytokines and chemokines. Some effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus on adaptive immunity that are potentially relevant to TB defence have been identified in humans.
CD40-mediated signalling influences trafficking, T-cell receptor expression, and T-cell pathogenesis, in the NOD model of type 1 diabetes
Vaitaitis, G. M., Waid, D. M., Yussman, M. G. and Wagner, D. H. (2017).
Immunology, 152: 243–254. doi:10.1111/imm.12761
CD40 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The mechanism of action, however, is undetermined, probably because CD40 expression has been grossly underestimated.

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