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Additional resources

 If you have any questions about vaccines, please talk to your GP, nurse or other healthcare professional.

Additional resources

Routine childhood immunisation schedule

NHS website - Vaccinations and when to have them

NHS website - Why vaccination is safe and important

Vaccine Knowledge Project from the University of Oxford

UK Health Security Agency - ‘Immunisations at one year of age’ information booklet

Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency Yellow Card reporting site

Guide to childhood vaccinations references ​

1. World Health Organization Vaccines and immunization

2. Ochmann & Roser 2018 Smallpox Published online at​

3. Number of cases in England now:

​a) Diphtheria: UK Health Security Agency Diphtheria in England: 2021 (updated May 2022)

b) Pertussis: UK Health Security Agency Laboratory confirmed cases of pertussis in England: April - June 2022 (updated 28 February 2023)

c) Measles: UK Health Security Agency Confirmed cases of measles, mumps and rubella in England and Wales: 1996 to 2021 (updated 21 September 2022)

d) Hib: UK Health Security Agency Laboratory reports of Haemophilus influenzae by age group and serotype England: annual 2020 (published 25 January 2022)

e) MenC: UK Health Security Agency Invasive meningococcal disease in England: annual laboratory confirmed reports for epidemiological year 2020 to 2021 (published 25 January 2022)

4. World Health Organization Measles (updated 20 March 2023)

5. NHS Digital 2022 Childhood Vaccination Coverage Statistics – England 2021–2022

6. UK Health Security Agency 2017 Pertussis Green Book, Chapter 24 

7. UK Health Security Agency 2019 Measles Green Book, Chapter 21 (updated December 2019)

8. NHS The flu jab in pregnancy (reviewed 5 September 2022)

9. NHS Whooping cough vaccination in pregnancy (reviewed 24 March 2023) 

10. University of Oxford, Vaccine Knowledge Project How vaccines are tested, licensed and monitored (updated 26 May 2022) 

11. University of Oxford, Vaccine Knowledge Project Vaccine ingredients (updated May 2022) 

12. Mitkus et al. 2011 Updated aluminum pharmacokinetics following infant exposures through diet and vaccination Vaccine 28 9538–43 

13. NHS Antacids (reviewed 24 March 2023)

14. UK Health Security Agency 2022 Vaccines and porcine gelatin

15. University of Oxford, Vaccine Knowledge Project Gelatine in vaccines (updated 2 November 2021)

16. Sadarangani, M. University of Oxford, Oxford Vaccine Group 2016 Herd Immunity: How does it work?   

17. University of Oxford, Vaccine Knowledge Project FAQs about vaccines (updated 19 January 2022)

18.University of Oxford, Vaccine Knowledge Project Combination vaccines and multiple vaccinations (updated 26 March 2018)

19. World Health Organization, The Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety 2003 MMR and autism

20. Di Pietrantonj et al. 2021 Does the measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMRV) vaccine protect children, and does it cause harmful effects? Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Art. no. CD004407

21. Hviid et al. 2019 Measles, mumps, rubella vaccination and autism: a nationwide cohort study Ann Intern Med 170 513–20 

22. Taylor et al. 2014 Vaccines are not associated with autism: an evidence-based meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies. Vaccine 32 3623–9

23. World Health Organization, Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety 2006 Thiomersal

24. European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) 2004 EMEA public statement on thiomersal in vaccines for human use – recent evidence supports safety of thiomersal-containing vaccines

25. Offit & Hackett 2003 Addressing parents’ concerns: do vaccines cause allergic or autoimmune diseases? Pediatrics 111 653–9 

26. McKeever et al. 2004 Vaccination and allergic disease: a birth cohort study Am J Public Health 94 985–9